ROCKSTAR

Tommy used to work on the docs.

The Rockstar Language Specification

Rockstar is intended to give the programmer an unprecedented degree of poetic license when it comes to the composition and structure of their programs.

File format

Rockstar programs are UTF-8 files with the .rock file extension. (Given that for everything included in the current Rockstar specification, UTF-8 is indistinguishable from 7-bit ASCII, that’s a fancy way of saying they’re plain text files.)

Comments

The use of comments in Rockstar programs is strongly discouraged. This is rock’n’roll; it’s up to the audience to find their own meaning. If you absolutely insist on commenting your Rockstar programs, comments should be contained in parentheses (). Yes, this means you can’t use brackets in arithmetic expressions and may need to decompose complex expressions into multiple evaluations and assignments.

Rockstar developers are not into that whole brevity thing.

(Initialise Tommy = 1337)
Tommy was a big bad brother. 

Variables

There’s two ways to declare and use variables in Rockstar.

Common variables consist of one of the keywords a, an, the, my or your followed by a unique variable name, which must contain only lowercase ASCII letters a-z. The keyword is part of the variable name, so a boy is a different variable from the boy.

Proper variables are proper nouns - any word that isn’t a reserved keyword and starts with an uppercase letter. Proper variable names can contain spaces as long as each space is followed by an uppercase letter. Whilst some developers may use this feature to create variables with names like Customer ID, Tax Rate or Distance In KM, we recommend you favour idiomatic variable names such as Tommy, Gina, Doctor Feelgood, Mister Crowley, Kayleigh, Tom Sawyer, Billie Jean and Janie.

(Although not strictly idiomatic, Eleanor Rigby, Peggy Sue, Black Betty, Layla and Johnny B Goode would also all be valid variable names in Rockstar.)

As in Ruby, Python and VBScript, variables are dynamically typed and you don’t need to declare variables before use.

If a variable is defined outside of a function, it is in global scope. Global scope variables are available everywhere below its first initialization. If a variable is defined inside of a function, it is in local scope. Local scope variables are available from their initialization until the end of the function they are defined in.

While within a function, if you write to a variable that has been defined in global scope, you write to that variable, you do not define a new local variable.

Pronouns

The keywords it, he, she, him, her, they, them, ze, hir, zie, zir, xe, xem, ve, and ver refer to the last named variable determined by parsing order.

(Please don’t file issues pointing out that 80s rockers were a bunch of misogynists and gender-inclusive pronouns aren’t really idiomatic. You’re right, we know, and we’ve all learned a lot since then. Besides, Look What The Cat Dragged In was recorded by four cishet guys who spent more money on lipgloss and hairspray than they did on studio time, and it’s an absolute classic.)

Types

Rockstar uses a similar type system to that defined by the ECMAScript type system, except undefined doesn’t sound very rock’n’roll so we use mysterious instead.

Functions and function identifiers are not strictly part of the type system in Rockstar 1.0.

Truthiness

The results of comparisons often rely on a concept called ‘truthiness’. If the value is truthy, it will be implicitly converted to true. If it is falsy, it will be implicitly converted to false.

Constants vs Keywords

Words that are used to construct a literal of a certain type are referred to as constants and words that are used to construct various syntax constructs are referred to as keywords

Constant Aliases
mysterious -
null nothing, nowhere, nobody, empty, gone
true, right, yes, ok
false wrong, no, lies

Literals and Assignment

String literals in Rockstar use double quotes.

Numeric literals in Rockstar are written as decimal numbers

Assignment is denoted by the put/into keyword combination:

Single Quotes

Given Rockstar’s intriguing ancestral mixture of computer programming, creative English and idiomatic rock’n’roll, the single quote character presents all sorts of challenges.

Most programming languages use the single quote for quoting literal strings - 'like this'. English, when written using the basic ASCII character set, often uses the single quote to stand in for the apostrophe to denote contractions or possessives - you're, she's, he's, shouldn't, rock'n'roll. Rock’n’roll uses the apostrophe apparently at random - sweet child o' mine, ain't talkin' 'bout love, guns n' roses.

Given three such dramatically different influences, here’s how Rockstar interprets single quotes.

  1. The sequence 's\W+ - a single quote followed by a lowercase ‘s’ and one or more whitespace characters - should be replaced with ` is ` (space, is, space)
    • This allows Janie's got a gun (initialises Janie with the value 313) and Union's been on strike (initialise Union with the value 426) as valid variable declarations.
  2. All other single quotes are then ignored. ain't is equivalent to aint, wakin' has five letters, and ''''' is equal to the empty string. This means you can use single quotes freely throughout your program to punctuate, adjust word lengths and generally channel the spirit of rock’n’roll without worrying about compiler errors.

Increment and Decrement

Increment and decrement are supported by the Build {variable} up and Knock {variable} down statements. Adding more than one up or down in the statement will increment or decrement the same amount of times as you have ups or downs in the statement. There may be a comma between each up and down.

Arithmetic

Rockstar supports the infix arithmetic operators +, -, * and /. The language includes aliases for each operator so you can write lyrically pleasing expressions.

Operator Operation Aliases
+ addition plus, with
- subtraction minus, without
* multiplication times, of
/ division over

The alias by has been explicitly rejected because of disagreements between the colloquial English ten by four (i.e. 10*4 = 40) and ten (divided) by four (i.e. 10/4 = 2.5)

Examples:

Poetic Literals

Rockstar also supports a unique language feature known as poetic literals. Inspired by the here-document syntax supported by many scripting languages, poetic literals allow the programmer to simultaneously initialize a variable and express their innermost angst.

Poetic Constant Literals

A poetic constant literal is a single line consisting of a variable name, the is keyword, or the aliases are, was or were, and a constant signifying the value the variable will be set to.

Poetic String Literals

A poetic string literal assignment starts with a variable name, followed by one of the keywords says followed by a single space. The rest of the line up to the \n terminator is treated as an unquoted string literal.

Poetic Number Literals

A poetic number literal begins with a variable name, followed by the keyword is, or the aliases was or were. As long as the next symbol is not a Literal Word, the rest of the line is treated as a decimal number in which the values of consecutive digits are given by the lengths of the subsequent barewords, up until the end of the line. To allow the digit zero, and to compensate for a lack of suitably rock’n’roll 1- and 2-letter words, word lengths are parsed modulo 10. A period (.) character denotes a decimal place. Other than the first period, any non-alphabetical characters are ignored.

Comparison

Similar to the single-equals operator in Visual Basic and some scripting languages, the is keyword in Rockstar is interpreted differently depending whether it appears as part of a statement or as part of an expression. isn't is the logical negation of the is keyword.

Comparison in Rockstar can only be done within an expression.

The keyword ain't (which is reduced to aint by Rockstar) is an alias for isn't. This usage runs contrary to idiomatic English, where “Tommy isn’t anybody”, “Tommy ain’t nobody” and “Tommy ain’t not nobody” somehow mean exactly the same thing.

Rockstar also supports the following comparison syntax:

Logical Operations

Rockstar has 4 different logical operators that first convert their operand(s) to a boolean by truthiness.

All logical operators are short circuiting. This means if by evaluating the first argument to the operator guarantees a result, the other argument is not evaluated. false and 1 over 0 is false and does not produce an error for dividing by zero.

Input/Output

Use the Listen keyword to read one line of input from STDIN. Use Listen to to capture the input into a named variable.

Use the Say keyword to write the value of a variable to STDOUT.

Rockstar defines Shout, Whisper and Scream as aliases for Say

The following examples all use c style syntax for explaining what things do.

Types Continued

Operator Precedence

The higher, the tighter the binding. This is the precedence we generally expect from our math.

  1. Function Call (greedy arguments)
  2. Logical NOT (right-associative)
  3. Multiplication and Division (left-associative)
  4. Addition and Subtraction (left-associative)
  5. Comparison operators (left-associative)
  6. and, or, and nor (left-associative)
Examples

Binary Comparison

Equality comparisons (is, ain't, is not) are allowed between types if they are the same type or they can be compared by the rules below. Objects are checked by reference equality, all other types are checked by value equality.

Ordering comparisons (is higher than, is lower than, is as high as, and is as low as) are only allowed if the operands are both Numbers or both Strings or they are converted to such an arrangement according to the rules below. Numbers are compared as expected, Strings are compared lexicographically.

Examples

Increment and Decrement Operators

Binary Operators

Conversions other than the listed are errors.

Flow Control and Block Syntax

Conditionals

Conditional expressions start with the If keyword, followed by an expression. If the expression evaluates to true, then the subsequent code block is executed. Optionally, an Else block can be written after an If block. The code block following the Else keyword would be executed if the If expression evaluated to false.

For the purpose of conditional expressions, 0, mysterious, null, false, and the empty string all evaluate to false, and everything else to true.

Loops

Similar to the If statement, a loop is denoted by the While or Until keyword, which will cause the subsequent code block to be executed repeatedly whilst the expression is satisfied:

Tommy was a dancer
While Tommy ain't nothing,
Knock Tommy down

That’ll initialize Tommy with the value 16 (using the poetic number literal syntax) and then loop, decrementing Tommy by 1 each time until Tommy equals zero (i.e ain't nothing returns false).

The break and continue statements work as they do in most block-based languages. Rockstar defines Break it down as an alias for break and Take it to the top as an alias for continue

Blocks

A block in Rockstar starts with an If, Else, While or Until statement, and is terminated by a blank line or the end-of-file. EOF ends all open code blocks

Tommy was a dancer
While Tommy ain't nothing
Shout it
Knock it down

Functions

Functions are declared with a variable name followed by the takes keyword and a list of arguments separated by one of the following: and , & , and 'n'

The function body is a list of statements with no separating blank lines. A blank line denotes the end of a function body. Functions in Rockstar always have a return value, indicated by the Give back keyword.

Functions are called using the ‘taking’ keyword and must have at least one argument. Multiple arguments are separated with one of the following: , & , and 'n'.

Arguments may only be variables or literals. Compound expressions are not allowed. Functionals are greedy, if they find more symbols that make up valid arguments they will take them.

Examples

Here’s FizzBuzz in minimalist Rockstar, with block scope indented for clarity:

Modulus takes Number and Divisor
While Number is as high as Divisor
Put Number minus Divisor into Number
    (blank line ending While block)
Give back Number
    (blank line ending function declaration)
Limit is 100
Counter is 0
Fizz is 3
Buzz is 5
Until Counter is Limit
Build Counter up
If Modulus taking Counter, Fizz is 0 and Modulus taking Counter, Buzz is 0
Say "FizzBuzz!"
Continue
    (blank line ending 'If' Block)
If Modulus taking Counter and Fizz is 0
Say "Fizz!"
Continue
    (blank line ending 'If' Block)	
If Modulus taking Counter and Buzz is 0
Say "Buzz!"
Continue
    (blank line ending 'If' Block)
Say Counter (Note that the EOF terminates the `Until` block.)

And here’s the same thing in idiomatic Rockstar, using poetic literals and no indentation

Midnight takes your heart and your soul
While your heart is as high as your soul
Put your heart without your soul into your heart

Give back your heart


Desire is a lovestruck ladykiller
My world is nothing 
Fire is ice
Hate is water
Until my world is Desire,
Build my world up
If Midnight taking my world, Fire is nothing and Midnight taking my world, Hate is nothing
Shout "FizzBuzz!"
Take it to the top

If Midnight taking my world, Fire is nothing
Shout "Fizz!"
Take it to the top

If Midnight taking my world, Hate is nothing
Say "Buzz!"
Take it to the top

Whisper my world